1869 Boston Children’s Hospital opens as a 20-bed facility at 9 Rutland Street in Boston’s South End.
1891  Children’s establishes the nation’s first laboratory for the modification and production of bacteria-free milk.
1920 Dr. William Ladd devises procedures for correcting various congenital defects such as intestinal malformations, launching the specialty of pediatric surgery.
1922 Dr. James Gamble analyzes the composition of body fluids and develops a method for intravenous feeding that saves the lives of thousands of infants at risk of dehydration from diarrhea.
1932 Dr. Louis Diamond characterizes Rh disease, in which a fetus’s blood is incompatible with its mother’s. Diamond later develops exchange transfusion to treat the disease.
1938 Dr. Robert Gross performs the world’s first successful surgical procedure to correct a congenital cardiovascular defect, ushering in the era of modern pediatric cardiac surgery.
1947 Dr. Sidney Farber achieves the world’s first successful remission of acute leukemia. He goes on to found the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute.
1954 Dr. John Enders and his colleagues win the Nobel Prize for successfully culturing the polio virus in 1949, making possible the development of the Salk and Sabin vaccines. Enders and his team went on to culture the measles virus.
1971 Dr. Judah Folkman publishes “Tumor angiogenesis: therapeutic implications” in the New England Journal of Medicine. It is the first paper to describe Folkman’s theory that tumors recruit new blood vessels in order to grow.
1978 Dr. Stuart Orkin develops restriction endonuclease mapping to diagnose thalassemia in utero.  A similar technique led to the development of prenatal tests for sickle cell anemia in 1982.
1983 Children’s physicians report the first surgical correction of hypoplastic left heart syndrome, a defect in which an infant is born without a left ventricle. The procedure is the first to correct what previously had been a fatal condition.
1985 The Howard Hughes Medical Institute funds a major research program in molecular genetics, the first HHMI program at a pediatric hospital.
1986 Children’s surgeons perform the hospital’s first heart transplant.
1986 Drs. Louis Kunkel and Stuart Orkin and their research teams develop the technique of positional cloning to identify the genes responsible for Duchenne muscular dystrophy and chronic granulomatous disease, respectively.
1989 Researchers in Neurology and Genetics discover that beta amyloid, a protein that accumulates in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease, is toxic to neurons, indicating the possible cause of the degenerative disease.
1990 Dr. Joseph Murray, chief of Plastic Surgery emeritus, wins the Nobel Prize for his pioneering work in organ transplantation.
1996 Boston Combined Residency Program (BCRP) formed.
1997 Endostatin, one of the most potent inhibitors of angiogenesis, is discovered by Drs. Michael O’Reilly and Judah Folkman.
1998 Dr. Anthony Atala successfully transplants laboratory-grown bladders into dogs, a major advance in the growing field of tissue engineering.
1998 Dr. Evan Snyder clones the first neural stem cells from the human central nervous system.
1999 Dr. Todd Golub first uses gene expression microarrays to differentiate cancers.
1999 The FDA approves the use of CardioSEAL, a minimally invasive device invented by Dr. James Lock that closes holes in the hearts of the most seriously ill cardiac patients.
2000 Dr. Frederick Alt finds that end-joining proteins maintain the stability of DNA, helping to prevent the chromosomal changes that precede cancer.
2001 Children’s performs the world’s first successful fetal repair of hypoplastic left heart syndrome in a 19-week-old fetus.
2002 Dr. Nader Rifai co-authors a landmark study showing that a simple and inexpensive blood test for C-reactive protein is a more powerful predictor of a person’s risk of heart attack or stroke than LDL cholesterol.
2002 Drs. Scott Pomeroy and Todd Golub use microarray gene expression profiling to identify different types of brain tumors and predict clinical outcomes.
2003 Drs. Heung Bae Kim and Tom Jaksic develop, test and successfully perform the world’s first-ever serial transverse enteroplasty (STEP) procedure, a potential lifesaving surgical procedure for patients with short bowel syndrome.
2005 Dr. Stephen Harrison and colleagues show how a key part of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) changes shape, triggering other changes that allow the AIDS virus to enter and infect cells.
2005 Dr. Raif Geha discovers a gene mutation that causes common variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) and IgA deficiency.
2006 Dr. Scott Armstrong identifies self-renewal genes that turn a normal blood cell progenitor into a leukemic stem cell.
2006 Dr. Hannah Kinney links sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) to abnormalities in the brainstem serotonin system, which regulates breathing, blood pressure, body heat and arousal.
2006 Children’s urologists successfully implant laboratory grown bladders, the first completely tissue-engineered organs to be implanted in humans, in seven children with spina bifida.
2007 Dr. Charles Nelson proves that abandoned children do much better cognitively if moved from institutions to foster care.
2007 Dr. Len Zon discovers that prostaglandin E2 greatly stimulates the growth of blood and probably other tissue stem cells.
2007 Dr. Lois Smith finds that omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce pathological retinal angiogenesis and are a potential therapy for retinopathy of prematurity.
2007 Dr. David Ludwig demonstrates that diets rich in rapidly digested carbohydrates not only expand waistlines, but may also cause fatty liver disease.
2007 Cardiac surgeons Drs. Virna Sales and John Mayer create living, growing heart valves in an animal model using tissue engineering techniques.
2008 Dr. George Daley discovers how to reprogram human somatic cells to pleuripotent stem cells with defined transcription factors.
2008 Dr. Chris Walsh and his colleagues identify several genetic loci that cause autism.
2008 Drs Vijay Sankaran and Stuart Orkin discover that the fetal hemoglobin to adult hemoglobin switch is controlled by the BCL11A transcription factor. This solves a decades old problem in hematology and has important implications for the treatment of sickle cell disease and thalassemias.
2008 Dr. Zhi He observes that stimulation of the mTOR pathway greatly increases axon regeneration after CNS injury. Subsequently, in 2012, Dr. He describes methods for achieving robust and sustained axon regeneration.
2008 Neurobiology researchers at Children’s successfully get damaged nerves to recover and regrow in a mouse model by temporarily silencing genes that normally prevent regeneration.
2008 Manton Center for Orphan Disease Research founded.
2009 Immune Disease Institute joins Boston Children’s Hospital as the Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine.
2009 Drs. George Daley and Richard Gregory show that the microRNA, Lin 28, plays an important role in germ cell development and cancer.
2009 Drs. Len Zon and George Daley discover that blood flow triggers development of hematopoietic stem cells.
2011 Drs. Stuart Orkin, Vijay Sankaran and their colleagues are able to correct sickle cell disease in mice by silencing BCL11A, which shows that the fetal hemoglobin switch can be reversed.
2011 Drs. Luigi Notarangelo, Sung-Yun Pai and David Williams achieve the first successful treatment of severe combined immunodeficiency by gene therapy in the US.
2012 Dr. Heung Bae Kim develops novel method to stretch arteries in vivo for repair of arterial defects.
2013 Drs. Amy Starmer, Ted Sectish and Chris Landrigan develop a patient handoff method (I-PASS) that greatly reduces medical errors and preventable adverse events
2013 Dr. Dan Bauer discovers an erythroid specific enhancer of BCL11A whose deletion raises fetal hemoglobin without affecting BCL11A in the brain and lymphocytes where it is needed. The discovery opens the door to gene editing of BCL11A as a treatment for sickle cell disease and thalassemia.
2013 Dr. Joseph Majzoub finds that MRAP2, a protein that regulates melanocortin signaling, is involved in body weight regulation in humans.
2014 Drs. Jeff Burns and Tracy Wolbrink launch OPENPediatrics, an innovative web-based digital learning platform linking physicians and nurses across the world
2014 Dr. Fernando Camargo discovers that the Hippo- signaling pathway maintains the differentiated hepatocyte state. Loss of Hippo causes hepatocytes to revert to a progenitor state.
2014 Dr. Carla Kim identifies mechanisms that drive the differentiation of lung stem cells and contribute to alveolar repair after injury.
2015 Dr. Joel Hirschhorn and others identify a large number of genes that contribute to obesity and body fat distribution.
2015 Dr. Len Zon defines the perivascular hematopoietic stem cell niche and shows that epoxyeicosatrienoic acid lipids enhance HSC engraftment.
2015 Dr. Beth Stevens wins MacArthur “Genius” Award for defining the role of microglia in synapse pruning in development and Alzheimer’s disease.
2015 Dr. Len Zon shows that reversion to a neural crest identity initiates the first cancerous cell in melanoma.
2015 Dr. Hao Wu visualizes the structure of the inflammasome, which activates innate immunity, and how it is assembled.
2016 Dr. Beth Stevens reports the important discovery that the complement pathway and microglia, which prune excess synapses during normal brain development, are inappropriately activated and cause synaptic loss early in Alzheimer’s disease.
2016 Dr. Judy Lieberman discovers a new innate pathway for intracellular killing of bacteria by gasdermin D, which binds to the bacterial membrane and forms a lethal pore.
2016 Dr. Seth Rakoff-Nahoum discovers that some gut bacteria cooperate by metabolizing nutrients for each other; likely the first of many examples of microbial symbiosis.
2017 Children’s hematology/oncology faculty member George Q. Daley becomes Dean of Harvard Medical School.
2017 Zhigang He, Larry Benowitz and Clifford Woolf, working independently, show that spinal cord regrowth can occur, raising the real possibility of clinical recovery from spinal cord injury and paralysis.
2017 David Williams, Christy Duncan and their colleagues successfully treat cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy with gene therapy.
2017 Todd Golub creates a Connectivity Map linking more than a million genes, drugs, and disease states by virtue of their common gene-expression signatures.
2018 Thomas Kirchhausen develops a new microscope that achieves remarkable high resolution, noninvasive imaging of subcellular processes in large cell volumes.
2018 Bill Pu discovers that serum response factor is a key regulator of embryonic cardiomyocyte maturation.
2019 Drs David Williams and Erica Esrick cure a patient with sickle cell disease by expressing a shRNA against BCL11A in his hematopoietic stem cells and reactivating the synthesis of hemoglobin F.
2019 Pierre Dupont develops a self-driving robotic catheter that finds its way through blood vessels and a beating heart to a leaky valve without a surgeon’s involvement.
2019 Mariella Filbin shows that individual glioblastoma tumor cells exist in four different states representing different neural cell types, which complicates therapy of this dangerous brain tumor.
2019 Vijay Sankaran develops a much more powerful method for lineage tracing of human cells using mitochondrial mutations and single cell genomics. 
2019 Tim Yu successfully develops the first N of 1 therapy for a child with a rare genetic disease
2020 Scott Armstrong showed that AML can be prevented by targeted epigenetic therapy of a preleukemic state.
2020 Karl Koehler and his colleagues devised a method for generating skin with hair, nerves and glands from pleuripotent stem cells, that can reconstitute skin in vivo.
2021 David Ludwig and Cara Ebbeling-Zabilansky show that a low-carb diet outperforms a low-fat diet, debunking an old diet dogma.
2021 Basil Darras and his colleagues discover that the oral drug risdaplam improves motor function in infants with severe spinal motor atrophy.
2021 Kim Stegmaier publishes a “dependency” map of genes that pediatric cancer cells need for daily survival, which offers a new universe of potential therapeutic targets.
2021 Leslie Kean discovers that abatacept prevents graft-versus-host disease opening up many more donor match possibilities, especially for people of color.
2021 Carly Ziegler and Jose Ordovas-Montanes discover that failed nasal epithelial anti-viral immunity underlies and precedes severe COVID-19.
2021 David Breault and his colleagues discover ways to expand potentially therapeutic enteroendocrine cells from the intestinal stem cells of patients.
2022 Chris Walsh and his colleagues discover that neurons in Alzheimer’s disease accumulate mutations from oxidative damage more rapidly than neurons in normal brains.
2022 Fred Alt develops a universal antibody that neutralizes all SARS-CoV-2 variants.
2022 Judy Lieberman discovers that antibody-mediated SARS-CoV-2 uptake by monocytes and macrophages triggers inflammatory cell death that contributes to COVID-19 pathogenesis.
2022 The new Hale Family Building opens, with its state-of-the-art cardiovascular institute.
2022 Rachel Grace and her colleagues showed that Mitapivat, a first of a new class of drugs that activate impotent mutant enzymes, is effective in many patients with pyruvate kinase deficiency.
2022 Scott Snapper and colleagues developed a screening system to identify environmental factors that cause or control intestinal inflammation and potentially affect inflammatory bowel disease.
2022 Siddharth Srivastava and Ann Poduri find that about a quarter of cases of cerebral palsy can be explained by genetic variants.
2022 Amy Starmer, Ted Sectish and Chris Landrigan show that the I-PASS handoff program, which they developed, cut adverse events by almost half.
2023 Jorge Martin-Rufino and Vijay Sankaran developed a systemic, high throughput method to evaluate the impact of genetic variants on human physiology and disease using massively parallel base-editing screens.
2023 Tim Yu develops a method for the identification of individuals with genetic diseases who will benefit from a N of 1 therapy using splice-switching antisense oligonucleotides.